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Asme: Drilling fluids processing handbook

Авторы: Asme

Название: DRILLING FLUIDS PROCESSING HANDBOOK

Формат: PDF

Размер: 5, 37 Mb

Год издания: 2005

 

Contents:

Biographies xvii

Preface xxiii

1 Historical Perspective and Introduction

1.1 Scope

1.2 Purpose

1.3 Introduction

1.4 Historical Perspective

1.5 Comments

1.6 Waste Management

2 Drilling Fluids

2.1 Drilling Fluid Systems

2.1.1 Functions of Drilling Fluids

2.1.2 Types of Drilling Fluids

2.1.3 Drilling Fluid Selection

2.1.4 Separation of Drilled Solids from Drilling Fluids

2.2 Characterization of Solids in Drilling Fluids

2.2.1 Nature of Drilled Solids and Solid Additives

2.2.2 Physical Properties of Solids in Drilling Fluids

2.3 Properties of Drilling Fluids

2.3.1 Rheology

2.4 Hole Cleaning

2.4.1 Detection of Hole-Cleaning Problems

2.4.2 Drilling Elements That Affect Hole Cleaning

2.4.3 Filtration

2.4.4 Rate of Penetration

2.4.5 Shale Inhibition Potential/Wetting Characteristics

2.4.6 Lubricity

2.4.7 Corrosivity

2.4.8 Drilling-Fluid Stability and Maintenance

2.5 Drilling Fluid Products

2.5.1 Colloidal and Fine Solids

2.5.2 Macropolymers

2.5.3 Conventional Polymers

2.5.4 Surface-Active Materials

2.6 Health, Safety, and Environment and Waste Management

2.6.1 Handling Drilling Fluid Products and Cuttings

2.6.2 Drilling Fluid Product Compatibility and Storage Guidelines

2.6.3 Waste Management and Disposal References

3 Solids Calculation

3.1 Procedure for a More Accurate Low-Gravity Solids Determination

3.1.1 Sample Calculation

3.2 Determination of Volume Percentage of Low-Gravity Solids in Water-Based Drilling Fluid

3.3 Rig-Site Determination of Specific Gravity of Drilled Solids

4 Cut Points

4.1 How to Determine Cut Point Curves

4.2 Cut Point Data: Shale Shaker Example

5 Tank Arrangement

5.1 Active System

5.1.1 Suction and Testing Section

5.1.2 Additions Section

5.1.3 Removal Section

5.1.4 Piping and Equipment Arrangement

5.1.5 Equalization

5.1.6 Surface Tanks

5.1.7 Sand Traps

5.1.8 Degasser Suction and Discharge Pit

5.1.9 Desander Suction and Discharge Pits

5.1.10 Desilter Suction and Discharge Pits (Mud Cleaner/Conditioner)

5.1.11 Centrifuge Suction and Discharge Pits

5.2 Auxiliary Tank System

5.2.1 Trip Tank

5.3 Slug Tank

5.4 Reserve Tank(s)

6 Scalping Shakers and Gumbo Removal

7 Shale Shakers

7.1 How a Shale Shaker Screens Fluid

7.2 Shaker Description

7.3 Shale Shaker Limits

7.3.1 Fluid Rheological Properties

7.3.2 Fluid Surface Tension

7.3.3 Wire Wettability

7.3.4 Fluid Density

7.3.5 Solids: Type, Size, and Shape

7.3.6 Quantity of Solids

7.3.7 Hole Cleaning

7.4 Shaker Development Summary

7.5 Shale Shaker Design

7.5.1 Shape of Motion

7.5.2 Vibrating Systems

7.5.3 Screen Deck Design

7.5.4 g Factor

7.5.5 Power Systems

7.6 Selection of Shale Shakers

7.6.1 Selection of Shaker Screens

7.6.2 Cost of Removing Drilled Solids

7.6.3 Specific Factors

7.7 Cascade Systems

7.7.1 Separate Unit

7.7.2 Integral Unit with Multiple Vibratory Motions

7.7.3 Integral Unit with a Single Vibratory Motion

7.7.4 Cascade Systems Summary

7.8 Dryer Shakers

7.9 Shaker User’s Guide

7.9.1 Installation

7.9.2 Operation

7.9.3 Maintenance

7.9.4 Operating Guidelines

7.10 Screen Cloths

7.10.1 Common Screen Cloth Weaves

7.10.2 Revised API Designation System

7.10.3 Screen Identification

7.11 Factors Affecting Percentage-Separated Curves

7.11.1 Screen Blinding

7.11.2 Materials of Construction

7.11.3 Screen Panels

7.11.4 Hook-Strip Screens

7.11.5 Bonded Screens

7.11.6 Three-Dimensional Screening Surfaces

7.12 Non-Oilfield Drilling Uses of Shale Shakers

7.12.1 Microtunneling

7.12.2 River Crossing

7.12.3 Road Crossing

7.12.4 Fiber-Optic Cables

8 Settling Pits

8.1 Settling Rates

8.2 Comparison of Settling Rates of Barite and Low-Gravity Drilled Solids

8.3 Comments

8.4 Bypassing the Shale Shaker

9 Gas Busters, Separators, and Degassers

9.1 Introduction: General Comments on Gas Cutting

9.2 Shale Shakers and Gas Cutting

9.3 Desanders, Desilters, and Gas Cutting

9.4 Centrifuges and Gas Cutting

9.5 Basic Equipment for Handling Gas-Cut Mud

9.5.1 Gravity Separation

9.5.2 Centrifugal Separation

9.5.3 Impact, Baffle, or Spray Separation

9.5.4 Parallel-Plate and Thin-Film Separation

9.5.5 Vacuum Separation

9.6 Gas Busters

9.7 Separators

9.7.1 Atmospheric Separators

9.7.2 West Texas Separator

9.8 Pressurized Separators

9.8.1 Commercial Separator/Flare Systems

9.8.2 Pressurized, or Closed, Separators: Modified Production Separators

9.8.3 Combination System: Separator and Degasser

9.9 Degassers

9.9.1 Degasser Operations

9.9.2 Degasser Types

9.9.3 Pump Degassers or Atmospheric Degassers

9.9.4 Magna-VacTM Degasser

9.10 Points About Separators and Separation

References

10 Suspension, Agitation, and Mixing of Drilling Fluids

10.1 Basic Principles of Agitation Equipment

10.2 Mechanical Agitators

10.2.1 Impellers

10.2.2 Gearbox

10.2.3 Shafts

10.3 Equipment Sizing and Installation

10.3.1 Design Parameters

10.3.2 Compartment Shape

10.3.3 Tank and Compartment Dimensions

10.3.4 Tank Internals

10.3.5 Baffles

10.3.6 Sizing Agitators

10.3.7 Turnover Rate (TOR)

10.4 Mud Guns

10.4.1 High-Pressure Mud Guns

10.4.2 Low-Pressure Mud Guns

10.4.3 Mud Gun Placement

10.4.4 Sizing Mud Gun Systems

10.5 Pros and Cons of Agitation Equipment

10.5.1 Pros of Mechanical Agitators

10.5.2 Cons of Mechanical Agitators

10.5.3 Pros of Mud Guns

10.5.4 Cons of Mud Guns

10.6 Bernoulli’s Principle

10.6.1 Relationship of Pressure, Velocity, and Head

10.7 Mud Hoppers

10.7.1 Mud Hopper Installation and Operation

10.7.2 Mud Hopper Recommendations

10.7.3 Other Shearing Devices

10.8 Bulk Addition Systems

10.9 Tank/Pit Use

10.9.1 Removal

10.9.2 Addition

10.9.3 Suction

10.9.4 Reserve

10.9.5 Discharge

10.9.6 Trip Tank

References

11 Hydrocyclones

11.1 Discharge

11.2 Hydrocyclone Capacity

11.3 Hydrocyclone Tanks and Arrangements

11.3.1 Desanders

11.3.2 Desilters

11.3.3 Comparative Operation of Desanders and Desilters

11.3.4 Hydrocyclone Feed Header Problems

11.4 Median (D50) Cut Points

11.4.1 Stokes’ Law

11.5 Hydrocyclone Operating Tips

11.6 Installation

11.7 Conclusions

11.7.1 Errata

12 Mud Cleaners

12.1 History

12.2 Uses of Mud Cleaners

12.3 Non-Oilfield Use of Mud Cleaners

12.4 Location of Mud Cleaners in a Drilling-Fluid System

12.5 Operating Mud Cleaners

12.6 Estimating the Ratio of Low-Gravity Solids Volume and Barite Volume in Mud Cleaner Screen Discard

12.7 Performance

12.8 Mud Cleaner Economics

12.9 Accuracy Required for Specific Gravity of Solids

12.10 Accurate Solids Determination Needed to Properly Identify Mud Cleaner Performance

12.11 Heavy Drilling Fluids

13 Centrifuges

13.1 Decanting Centrifuges

13.1.1 Stokes’ Law and Drilling Fluids

13.1.2 Separation Curves and Cut Points

13.1.3 Drilling-Fluids Solids

13.2 The Effects of Drilled Solids and Colloidal Barite on Drilling Fluids

13.3 Centrifugal Solids Separation

13.3.1 Centrifuge Installation

13.3.2 Centrifuge Applications

13.3.3 The Use of Centrifuges with Unweighted Drilling Fluids

13.3.4 The Use of Centrifuges with Weighted Drilling Fluids

13.3.5 Running Centrifuges in Series

13.3.6 Centrifuging Drilling Fluids with Costly Liquid Phases

13.3.7 Flocculation Units

13.3.8 Centrifuging Hydrocyclone Underflows

13.3.9 Operating Reminders

13.3.10 Miscellaneous

13.4 Rotary Mud Separator

13.4.1 Problem 1

13.5 Solutions to the Questions in Problem 1

13.5.1 Question 1

13.5.2 Question 2

13.5.3 Question 3

13.5.4 Question 4

13.5.5 Question 5

13.5.6 Question 6

13.5.7 Question 7

13.5.8 Question 8

13.5.9 Question 9

13.5.10 Question 10

14 Use of the Capture Equation to Evaluate the Performance of Mechanical Separation Equipment Used to Process Drilling Fluids

14.1 Procedure

14.1.1 Collecting Data for the Capture Analysis

14.1.2 Laboratory Analysis

14.2 Applying the Capture Calculation

14.2.1 Case 1: Discarded Solids Report to Underflow

14.2.2 Case 2: Discarded Solids Report to Overflow

14.2.3 Characterizing Removed Solids

14.3 Use of Test Results

14.3.1 Specific Gravity

14.3.2 Particle Size

14.3.3 Economics

14.4 Collection and Use of Supplementary Information

15 Dilution

15.1 Effect of Porosity

15.2 Removal Efficiency

15.3 Reasons for Drilled-Solids Removal

15.4 Diluting as a Means for Controlling Drilled Solids

15.5 Effect of Solids Removal System Performance

15.6 Four Examples of the Effect of Solids Removal Equipment Efficiency

15.6.1 Example 1

15.6.2 Example 2

15.6.3 Example 3

15.6.4 Example 4

15.6.5 Clean Fluid Required to Maintain 4%vol Drilled Solids

15.7 Solids Removal Equipment Efficiency for Minimum Volume of Drilling Fluid to Dilute Drilled Solids

15.7.1 Equation Derivation

15.7.2 Discarded Solids

15.8 Optimum Solids Removal Equipment Efficiency (SREE)

15.9 Solids Removal Equipment Efficiency in an Unweighted Drilling Fluid from Field Data

15.9.1 Excess Drilling Fluid Built

15.10 Estimating Solids Removal Equipment Efficiency for a Weighted Drilling Fluid

15.10.1 Solution

15.10.2 Inaccuracy in Calculating Discard Volumes

15.11 Another Method of Calculating the Dilution Quantity

15.12 Appendix: American Petroleum Institute Method

15.12.1 Drilled Solids Removal Factor

15.12.2 Questions

15.13 A Real-Life Example

15.13.1 Exercise 1

15.13.2 Exercise 2

15.13.3 Exercise 3

15.13.4 Exercise 4

15.13.5 General Comments

16 Waste Management

16.1 Quantifying Drilling Waste

16.1.1 Example 1

16.1.2 Example 2

16.1.3 Example 3

16.1.4 Example 4

16.1.5 Example 5

16.1.6 Example 6

16.2 Nature of Drilling Waste

16.3 Minimizing Drilling Waste

16.3.1 Total Fluid Management

16.3.2 Environmental Impact Reduction

16.4 Offshore Disposal Options

16.4.1 Direct Discharge

16.4.2 Injection

16.4.3 Collection and Transport to Shore

16.4.4 Commercial Disposal

16.5 Onshore Disposal Options

16.5.1 Land Application

16.5.2 Burial

16.6 Treatment Techniques

16.6.1 Dewatering

16.6.2 Thermal Desorption

16.6.3 Solidification/Stabilization

16.7 Equipment Issues

16.7.1 Augers

16.7.2 Vacuums

16.7.3 Cuttings Boxes

16.7.4 Cuttings Dryers

References

17 The AC Induction Motor

17.1 Introduction to Electrical Theory

17.2 Introduction to Electromagnetic Theory

17.3 Electric Motors

17.3.1 Rotor Circuits

17.3.2 Stator Circuits

17.4 Transformers

17.5 Adjustable Speed Drives

17.6 Electric Motor Applications on Oil Rigs

17.6.1 Ratings

17.6.2 Energy Losses

17.6.3 Temperature Rise

17.6.4 Voltage

17.7 Ambient Temperature

17.8 Motor Installation and Troubleshooting

17.9 Electric Motor Standards

17.10 Enclosure and Frame Designations

17.10.1 Protection Classes Relating to Enclosures

17.11 Hazardous Locations

17.12 Motors for Hazardous Duty

17.13 European Community Directive 94/9/EC

17.14 Electric Motors for Shale Shakers

17.15 Electric Motors for Centrifuges

17.16 Electric Motors for Centrifugal Pumps

17.17 Study Questions

18 Centrifugal Pumps

18.1 Impeller

18.2 Casing

18.3 Sizing Centrifugal Pumps

18.3.1 Standard Definitions

18.3.2 Head Produces Flow

18.4 Reading Pump Curves

18.5 Centrifugal Pumps Accelerate Fluid

18.5.1 Cavitation

18.5.2 Entrained Air

18.6 Concentric vs Volute Casings

18.6.1 Friction Loss Tables

18.7 Centrifugal Pumps and Standard Drilling Equipment

18.7.1 Friction Loss and Elevation Considerations

18.8 Net Positive Suction Head

18.8.1 System Head Requirement (SHR) Worksheet

18.8.2 Affinity Laws

18.8.3 Friction Loss Formulas

18.9 Recommended Suction Pipe Configurations

18.9.1 Supercharging Mud Pumps

18.9.2 Series Operation

18.9.3 Parallel Operation

18.9.4 Duplicity

18.10 Standard Rules for Centrifugal Pumps

18.11 Exercises

18.11.1 Exercise 1

18.11.2 Exercise 2: System Head Requirement Worksheet

18.11.3 Exercise 3

18.11.4 Exercise 4

18.12 Appendix

18.12.1 Answers to Exercise 1

18.12.2 Answers to Exercise 2: System Head Requirement Worksheet

18.12.3 Answers to Exercise 3

18.12.4 Answers to Exercise 4

19 Solids Control in Underbalanced Drilling

19.1 Underbalanced Drilling Fundamentals

19.1.1 Underbalanced Drilling Methods

19.2 Air/Gas Drilling

19.2.1 Environmental Contamination

19.2.2 Drilling with Natural Gas

19.2.3 Sample Collection While Drilling with Air or Gas

19.2.4 Air or Gas Mist Drilling

19.3 Foam Drilling

19.3.1 Disposable Foam Systems

19.3.2 Recyclable Foam Systems

19.3.3 Sample Collection While Drilling with Foam

19.4 Liquid/Gas (Gaseated) Systems

19.5 Oil Systems, Nitrogen/Diesel Oil, Natural Gas/Oil

19.5.1 Sample Collection with Aerated Systems

19.6 Underbalanced Drilling with Conventional Drilling Fluids or Weighted Drilling Fluids

19.7 General Comments

19.7.1 Pressurized Closed Separator System

19.8 Possible Underbalanced Drilling Solids-Control Problems

19.8.1 Shale

19.8.2 Hydrogen Sulfide Gas

19.8.3 Excess Formation Water

19.8.4 Downhole Fires and Explosions

19.8.5 Very Small Air- or Gas-Drilled Cuttings

19.8.6 Gaseated or Aerated Fluid Surges

19.8.7 Foam Control

19.8.8 Corrosion Control

Suggested Reading

20 Smooth Operations

20.1 Derrickman’s Guidelines

20.1.1 Benefits of Good Drilled-Solids Separations

20.1.2 Tank and Equipment Arrangements

20.1.3 Shale Shakers

20.1.4 Things to Check When Going on Tour

20.1.5 Sand Trap

20.1.6 Degasser

20.1.7 Hydrocyclones

20.1.8 Hydrocyclone Troubleshooting

20.1.9 Mud Cleaners

20.1.10 Centrifuges

20.1.11 Piping to Materials Additions (Mixing) Section

20.2 Equipment Guidelines

20.2.1 Surface Systems

20.2.2 Centrifugal Pumps

20.3 Solids Management Checklist

20.3.1 Well Parameters/Deepwater Considerations

20.3.2 Drilling Program

20.3.3 Equipment Capability

20.3.4 Rig Design and Availability

20.3.5 Logistics

20.3.6 Environmental Issues

20.3.7 Economics

Appendix

Glossary

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