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Baker Hughes INTEQ: FLUID Facts

Издание: Baker Hughes INTEQ

Название: FLUID Facts

Формат: PDF

Размер: 2,98 MB

Год издания: 1999

 

Table of Contents

Chapter 1

Products, Applications, and Testing

Cross Reference Chart

Drilling Fluid Testing Procedures

Water-Base Fluids

Density (Fluid Weight) Measurement

Viscosity and Gel Strength

Marsh Funnel

Direct-Indicating Viscometer

Shear Strength Measurement

Filtration: API Low-Temp/Low-Pressure Test

Filtration: High-Temp/High-Pressure Test

Dynamic Filtration: High-Temp/High-Pressure Test

Retort

Estimating Sand Content

Measuring pH of Drilling Fluids

Determining Methylene Blue Capacity

Chemical Analyses

Determining Chloride Ion Content

Determining Filtrate, Fluid Alkalinity, Lime Content

Determining Total Hardness as Calcium

Determining Ca++ Only in Fluid Filtrate

Determining Magnesium

Determining Calcium Sulfate

Determining Sulfide Content in Fluid Filtrate

Determining Carbonate Content in Fluid Filtrate

Measuring Nitrate Ion Concentration

Measuring Sulfite Ion Content of Drilling Fluids

Miscellaneous Testing Procedures

Stickometer

Determining MIL-GARD Content in Field Fluid

Determining DAP Content of Drilling Fluid

Determining Potassium Concentration in Fluid Filtrate: Centrifuge Method

Determining Potassium Concentration in Fluid Filtrate: STPB Method

Oil- and Synthetic-Base Fluids

Determining CARBO-DRILLSM/SYN-TEQSM Whole Fluid

Alkalinity, Chlorides, & Calcium

Measuring Water, Oil, and Solids

Oil/Synthetic Fluid Lime, Salinity, Solids, & Fluid/Water Ratio Calculations

Aqueous Phase Salt Calculations

Fluid/Water Ratio Calculations

Nomenclature

Determining Electrical Stability

Determining Relative Humidity (Activity)

Procedure to Check Aniline Point

Field Pilot Testing

Apparatus

Sample Selections

Procedure

Application

Packer Fluids

Chapter 2

Water-Base Fluid Systems

INTEQ Drilling Systems

NEW-DRILL Fluids

Operational Procedures

Mixing Procedures

Determination of NEW-DRILL HP, NEW-DRILL, or NEW-DRILL PLUS in Fluid Filtrate

Deepwater Drilling Fluid System

AQUA-DRILL Glycol-Base Fluids

System Components

System Application

System Preparation

Test Procedures

Logistics

BIO-DRILL

System Preparation

System Maintenance

AQUA-MAGIC

System Preparation

System Maintenance

ALPLEX Aluminum-Base Fluids

Application Guidelines

Aluminum Determination by Fluoride Electrode

PYRO-DRILL High-Temperature Fluid

System Preparation

System Maintenance and Treatment

Specialty Fluid Systems

Silicate-Base Systems

History

Structure of Silicate Solutions

Mechanism for Wellbore Stabilization

Applications

Limitations

Formulations and Fluid Properties

Carbonate Systems

Fluid Alkalinity

Filtrate Alkalinity

Calcium Determination

Chloride Determination

Potassium Determination

Smectite Clays and Carbonate Contamination

Drill-In Fluid Systems

The PERFFLOW System5

System Application

General Engineering Guides

System Troubleshooting Guide

Displacement of PERFFLOW Drill-In Systems

Acid Clean-up Procedure

BIO-LOSE 90

Introduction

Rheology

Fluid Loss

Reservoir Considerations

Fluid Density

Directional Tools

Recommended Fluid Properties

Sample Well

Conventional Fluid Systems

Spud Fluids

Maintenance and Tips

Contaminants

Clearwater Drilling

Low-Solids Nondispersed Fluids

Low-Solids Fluids (Freshwater)

Contaminants

Dispersed Fluids

Phosphate-Treated Fluids

Tannin and Lignin Fluids

Lignosulfonate Fluids

Seawater Fluids

Saturated Saltwater Fluids

Characteristics

Calcium-Base Fluids

Maintenance and Tips

Fluid Contamination and Treatment

Calcium/Magnesium Contamination

Treatments

Cement/Lime Contamination

Measurement of Cement

Treatment

Additional Comments on Treatment

Pretreatment

Sodium Chloride Contamination

Treatment

Carbonate/Bicarbonate Contamination

Measurements of Carbonates

Alternate Method for Estimation of CO3 / HCO3

High pH Fluids

Low pH Fluids

Treatment of Carbonates

Additional Comments

Hydrogen Sulfide Contamination

Measurement of H2S

Treatment of H2S

Borehole Problems

Wellbore Instability

Shale Classifications

Hydrating and Dispersing Shales

Brittle Shales

Abnormally Pressured Shales

Tectonically Stressed Shales

Pore Pressure Transmission

Loss of Circulation

Causes

Preventative Measures

Remedial Procedures for Loss Circulation

Preparing & Using Lost-Circulation Pills in Water-Base Systems

Drillstring Sticking

Causes of Stuck Pipe

Preventative and Control Measures

Remedial Procedures for Stuck Pipe

Spotting Fluids

Chapter 3

Oil- and Synthetic-Base Drilling Fluids

Introduction

CARBO-DRILL Systems

CARBO-TEC System Products

CARBO-FAST System Products

CARBO-CORE System

Native State Drilling and Coring Fluids

Components

Mixing Procedures

Displacement

Water Contamination

CARBO-CORE System Products

CARBO-DRILL Supplemental Products

The SYN-TEQ Systems

Introduction

SYN-TEQ Systems

SYN-TEQ System Products1

SYN-CORE System Products

SYN-TEQ Supplemental Products

Plant/Field Mixing Procedures

Recommended Formulations

Product Safety and Handling

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Special Rig Equipment and Precautions

Displacement Procedures

Treatment

Changing Oil/Synthetic-to-Brine Ratio

Barite Plugs For Oil/Synthetic-Base Fluids

Materials and Procedure

Materials

Procedure

H2S or CO2 Gases

Lost Circulation or Seepage Losses

Measuring Oil on Cuttings

Description

Equipment

Procedure

Calculations

Chapter 4

Engineering

Hydraulics

Introduction

Rheological Models

Newtonian

Bingham Plastic

Power Law

Herschel - Buckley (Modified Power Law)

Casson Model

Robertson-Stiff

INTEQ Hydraulics Analysis

Parameters

Process

Annular Pressure Drop and ECD

Critical Velocity and Pump Rate

Drill String Pressure Drop

Swab and Surge Pressures

Slip Velocity and Hole Cleaning

Cuttings Concentration

Bit Hydraulics Analysis

Miscellaneous “Rules”

Jet Selection

Pressure Control

Introduction

Terminology

Pressure Gradient (psi/ft)

Normal Formation Pressure

Abnormal Formation Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

Equivalent Fluid (Mud) Weight

Fracture Gradient

Leak-Off Test

Pressure Integrity Test

Kick Recognition

Determining Shut-in Drillpipe Pressures (SIDP)

Determining Initial Circulating Pressure (ICP)

Surface BOP Stacks

Subsea BOP Stacks

Fluid Weight Needed to Balance a Kick (MW2)

Determining Final Circulating Pressure (FCP)

Well-Control Procedures

Procedure for Closing Well in While on Bottom

Procedure for Closing Well in While Tripping

Control Methods

Driller's Method

Wait and Weight Method

Concurrent Method

Low Choke Pressure Method

Wait and Weight Procedure Corrected for Deviation

Well Kill Data for Deviated Well (English Units)

Well Information

Deviated Well Pressure Drop Calculations

Contingency Plans for Special Problems

Problem #1

Problem #2

Common Equations Used in Well Control

Nomenclature

Solids Control

Drilled Solids

Effect of Drilled Solids on Fluid Properties

Particle Classification

Specific Gravity

Particle Size

Mechanical Solids-Control Equipment

Screen Devices (Shale Shakers)

Screens

Centrifugal Devices

Closed-Loop Systems

Solids Analysis

Drilling Fluid Water, Oil, and Solids

Bentonite Correction

Solids Removal System Performance

Directional Drilling

Applications for Horizontal Drilling

Drilling Fluid Selection

Directional Techniques

Cleaning Highly-Deviated Holes

Ranges of Inclination

Torque and Drag

Hole Stability

Formation Protection

Causes of Formation Damage

Calculations

Corrosion

Introduction

Factors Affecting Corrosion Rate

Temperature

Pressure

pH

Dissolved Salts

Corrosive Agents and Treatments

Oxygen ( O2 )

Carbon Dioxide ( CO2 )

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

Types of Corrosion

Bacterial-Induced Corrosion

Inoculation of Serial Dilution Vials

Interpretation of Results

Corrosivity of Various Fluids

Use of Corrosion Coupons

Ring Coupons

Ring Placement and Scheduling

Handling of Corrosion Rings

Calculation of Corrosion Rate

Drillpipe Corrosion Ring Coupon Test Procedure

Procedure

Calculation

Corrosion Treatment Tips

Oxygen Scavengers

Film-Forming Amines

Scale Inhibitor

Packer Fluid Treatment

Water-Base Drilling Fluid

Brine Water

Oil-Base Fluids

Chapter 5

Formulas, Charts, Tables

General Formulas

Pit Capacity Determination

Open Hole and Casing Volume (without Pipe)

Pipe Capacity

Pipe Displacement Obtained from Pipe Tables

Annular Volume

Pump Output

Annular Velocity

Bottoms Up (Strokes or Time)

Total Circulating Displacement (Strokes or Time)

Hole Volume Displacement (Strokes or Time)

Weight Increase Using MIL-BAR (Barite)

Volume Increase Using MIL-BAR (Barite)

Weight Increase Using DENSIMIX (Hematite)

Volume Increase Using DENSIMIX (Hematite)

Weight Increase Using W.O. 30 (Calcium Carbonate)

Volume Increase Using W.O. 30 (Calcium Carbonate)

Weight Reduction with Freshwater

Weight Reduction with Oil

Mixing Liquids of Different Densities

Fluid Density Increase for Slugging Pipe

Charts and Tables

Displacement of Triplex Fluid Pumps

Displacement of Duplex Fluid Pumps

Capacity of Hole

Capacity of Casing

Drillpipe Capacity and Displacement

Drill Collar Capacity and Displacement

Tubing Capacity and Displacement

Drillpipe Capacity/Displacement & Hole/Annular Capacity

Bit/Casing/Drillpipe Information

Milled Tooth Bit Comparison by Type

Insert Bit Comparison by Type

Area of Jet Nozzles

Diamond Bit Weight Recommendation

Strength of Casing

Bit and Casing Combination

Drillpipe and Tool Joint Condition: Color Code ID

Pump Discharge Fluid Volumes

Hydraulic Discharge Hydraulic Volumes

Strength of Drillpipe and Drill Tubing in psi

Surface Connection Combinations: Component Length-I.D.

Salt Tables

Physical Properties of Potassium Chloride Solutions

Physical Properties of Potassium Carbonate Solutions

Physical Properties of Sodium Chloride Solutions

Properties of Magnesium Chloride Solutions

Properties of Calcium Chloride Solutions

Physical Properties of Ammonium Chloride Solutions

Preparation of Calcium Chloride Solutions

Preparation of Potassium Bromide-Base Solutions Using Granular Concentrated KBr

Calcium-Chloride / Calcium-Bromide Solution Requirements

Using 11.6 lbm/gal CaCl2 Brine, 14.2 lbm/gal CaBr2 Brine, and Sacked CaCl2

Preparation of Calcium Bromide-Base Solutions Using Solid 94% CaCl2 and Liquid 14.2 lb/gal CaBr2

Preparation of Calcium Bromide-Base Solutions Using 95% Dry CaBr2

Preparation of Sodium Bromide-Base Solutions Using 10.0 lb/gal NaCl Solution and 12.4 lb/gal NaBr Solution

Preparation of Sodium Bromide-Base Solutions Using Solid NaCl, Granular Concentrated NaBr, and Water

Sodium Bromide Brine Requirements (using 95% NaBr)

Sodium Formate Brine Table

Potassium Formate Brine Table

Properties of 85% Calcium Nitrate Solutions

Chemical Information

International Atomic Weights

Chemical Formulas of Common Treating Agents

Moh's Hardness Scale

Specific Gravity & Hardness: Common Oil Field Materials

pH Ranges of Common Indicators

Approximate pH of Acids, Bases, and Oil Field Chemicals

Normality (N) of Solutions

Chemicals Required to Remove Ionic Contaminants

Effect of Salt on Calcium Solubility @ 72°F

Effect of Caustic Soda on Calcium Solubility @ 72°F

Conversion Factors

Useful Physical Constants

Metric “SI” Conversions

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