Литература по нефтяной
и газовой промышленности

H C H Darley: Composition and properties of drilling and completion fluids

Авторы: H. C. H. Darley, Geoarge R. Gray

Название: Composition and properties of drilling and completion fluids(fifth edition)

Формат: PDF

Размер: 31,7 Mb

Год издания: 1988

 

Contents
Preface
1. Introduction to Drilling Fluids
Functions of Drilling Fluids
Composition of Drilling Fluids
Properties of Drilling Fluids
Drilling Fluid Selection
Mud Handling Equipment
Optimization
References
2. The Development of Drilling Fluids Technology
Water-Base Drilling Fluids Technology
Removal of Cuttings
Pressure Control by Mud Density
Birth of the Mud Industry
Rapid Growth of the Mud Industry
Development of Mud Types or Systems
Corrosion Control
Different Types of Fluid for Different Drilling Functions
Oil-Base Drilling Fluids Technology
Reasons for Development
Oil for Well Completion
Early Oil Company Developments
Introduction of Commercial Oil Muds
Applications of Oil Muds, 1935-1950
Oil-Base Emulsion (Invert Emulsion) Drilling Fluids
Organophilic Clays and Ammonium Humates
Annulus Packs
Borehole Stabilization by Oil Muds
Extreme Borehole Conditions
Penetration Rate with Oil Mud
Scope of Oil Mud Applications
Gas Penetration Rate with Oil Mud
Scope of Oil Mud Applications
Gas-Base Drilling Fluids Technology
Dry Gas Drilling
Problems with Water-Bearing Zones
Foam
Aerated Mud
Gel Foam or Stiff Foam
Preformed Stable Foam
Flow Properties of Foam
Gas drilling Benefits
References
3. Equipment and Procedures for Evaluating Drilling Fluid
Performance
Sample Preparation
Properties Measured
Multifunctional Circulating Systems
Aging at High Temperature
Particle Size Determination
Identification of Mineral Constituents
Determination of Gas, Oil, and Solids Content
Electrical Properties
Materials for Regaining Lost Circulation
Maintenance of Hole Stability
Lubricity
Factors Affecting Differen Pressure Sticking of Drill Pipe
Corrosions Tests
Flo lants
Foams and Foaming Agents
Aniline Point
Chemical Analysis
Evaluation of Drilling Fluid Materials, References
4. Clay Mineralogy and the Colloid Chemistry of Drilling Fluids
Characteristics of Colloidal Systems
Clay Mineralogygin and Occurrence of Clay Minerals
Ion Exchange
Swelling Mechanisms,
The Electrostatic Double Layer
tide Association
The Mechanism of Gelation
Polym
References
5. The Rheology of Drilling Fluids
Laminar Flow Regime
Turbulent Flow Regimenfluence of Temperature and Pressure on the Rheology of Drilling Fluids
Application of Flow Equations to Conditions in the Drilling Well
Rheological Properties Required for Optimum Performance
he Importance of Hole Stability
References
6. The Filtration Properties of Drilling Fluids
Static Filtration
The Filter Cake
Dynamic Filtration
Filtration in the Borehole
References
7. The Surface Chemistry of Drilling Fluids
Surface Tension
Wettability
Surface Free Energy
Adhesion
Surfactants
Emulsions
Oil-Wetting Agents
Foams
Defoamers
The Effect of Electrochemical Environment on Rock Failure
References
8. Hole Stability
The Mechanics of Borehole Stability
Brief Review of the Geology and Geophysics of Sedimentary Basins
The Geostatic Grad
Hydrostatic Pore Pressure Gradients
Abnormal or Gee sured Gradients
The Behavior of Rocks Under Stress
Subsurface Stress Field
Stresses Around a Borehole
The Influence of Hydraulic Pressure Gradient on Hole Stability
Occurrence of Plastic Yielding in the Field
Brittle-Plastic Yielding
Hole Enlargement
Formations with No Cohesive Strength
Coal Seams
Hole Instability Caused by Interaction Between the Drilling Fluid and Shale Formations
Adsorption and Desorption of Clays and Shales
Hydration of the Borehole
Brittle Shales
Control of Borehole Hydration
Selection of Mud Type for Maintaining Borehole Stability
References
9. Drilling Problems Related to Drilling Fluids
Drill String Torque and Drag
Differential Sticking of the Drill String
Slow Drilling Rate
Loss of Circulation
High Temperatures
Corrosion of Drill Pipe
References
10. Completion, Workover, and Packer Fluids
Completion and Workover Fluids
The Skin Effect
Capillary Phenomena
Permeability Impairment by Indigenous Clays
Permeability Impairment by Particles from the Drilling Mud
Prevention of Formation Damage
Selection of Completion and Work-over Fluids
Tests for Potential Formation-Damage by Completion Fluids
Packer Fluids and Casing Packs
Functions and Requirements
Aqueous Packer Fluids
Oil-Base Packer Fluids and Casing Packs
References
11. Drilling Fluid Components

Drilling Fluids Industry Products
Water
Materials to Increase Density
Clays
Attapulgus Clay
Asbestos
Organic Polymers
Thinners: Mud-Conditioning Agents
Common Inorganic Chemicals
Lost Circulation Materials
Surfactants
Bituminous Materials
Environmental Aspects of Drilling Fluids
References
Appendix A: Conversion Factors
Appendix B: Abbreviations Used in References
Author Index

Subject Index

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