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Baker Hughes INTEQ: Drilling Engineering Workbook

Издание: Baker Hughes INTEQ

Название: Drilling Engineering Workbook

Формат: PDF

Размер: 5 Mb

Год издания: 1995

 

Table of Contents

Chapter 1

Drilling Fluids And Hydraulics

Drilling Fluids

Make-up of a Drilling Fluid

Normal Drilling Fluids

Special Drilling Fluids

Lime Base Muds

Lime-Treated Muds

Emulsion Muds - Oil in Water

Inhibited Muds

Gypsum Base Muds

Oil Based Muds

Inverted Emulsions

Salt Water Muds

Silicate Muds

Low Solids Muds

Drilling Fluid Classification Systems

Drilling Fluid Additives

Material Balance Equations

Oil-Based Drilling Fluids

Electrical Stability

Oil: Water Ratio

Aniline Point

Drilling Fluid Economics

Drilling Fluid Properties

Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydraulic Pressure

Imposed Pressure

Pressure Imposed By The Pump

Pressure Imposed By The Formation

Pascal's Law

Drilling Fluid Report

Density

Plastic Viscosity

Yield Point

Gel Strength

pH

Filtrate/Water Loss

Alkalinity, Mud Pm Alkalinity, Filtrate

Salt/Chlorides

Calcium

Sand Content

Solids Content

Funnel Viscosity

Hydraulics

Bingham Plastic Model

Power Law Model

Hydraulic Calculations

Surface Pressure Losses

Pressure Loss in the Drillstring

Drillstring Pressure Losses

Annular Pressure Losses

Reynolds Number and Critical Velocity

Cuttings Transport

Cuttings Slip Velocity

Bit Hydraulics And Optimization

Jet Nozzles

Surface Horsepower

Bottom Hole Horsepower

Hydraulic Horsepower

Hydraulic Impact Force

Fixed Cutter Bit Hydraulics

PDC Bit Hydraulics

Diamond Bit Hydraulics

Diamond Bit Flow Patterns

Swab And Surge Pressures

Swab and Surge Analysis Report

Mud Hydraulics Analysis Report

Self-Check Exercises

Casing And Cementing

Casing

Casing Standards

Casing Couplings

Cementing

Introduction

Cement Slurries

Typical Field Calculations

Example Field Calculation:

Removal of the Drilling Fluid

Cementing Nomenclature

Cement Additives

Casing and Cementing Analysis Report

Self-Check Exercises

Chapter 3

Bit Technology

Bit Technology

Rolling Cutter Rock Bits

Journal Angle

Interfitting Teeth and Cone Offset

Circulation Systems

Cutting Structures

Steel Tooth Cutting Structures

Bearing Systems

Material Requirements

Heat Treating

Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bits

PDC Drill Blanks

Bit Design

PDC Bit Operating Parameters

PDC Bit Drilling Parameters

Diamond Bits

The Diamonds

The Diamond Bit

Uses of Diamond Bits

Diamond Bit Operating Parameters

General Diamond Bit Drilling Practices

Diamond Bit Selection

Diamond Bit Salvage

Self-Check Exercises

Chapter 4

Drillstring Basics

Tubulars

Introduction

Drill Pipe Yield Strength and Tensile Strength

Drill Pipe Grades

Drill Pipe Classification

Tool Joints

Make-Up Torque

Buoyancy & Hookload

Introduction

Overpull

Maximum Hookload When Two Grades Of Drill Pipe Are Used

Higher Grade Pipe In The Inclined Section Of The Well

BHA Weight & Weight-On-Bit

Required BHA Weight For Rotary Assemblies

Running Drill Pipe In Compression

Critical Buckling Force

Calculating Critical Buckling Force

Calculating BHA Weight With Drill Pipe In Compression

BHA Requirements When The Drillstring Is Not Rotated

BHA Weight For Steerable Motor Assemblies

Summary

Neutral Point

Drillpipe Fatigue and Failure

Bending Stress

Fatigue Damage

Torque & Drag

Along Hole Components of Force

Computer Models of Drillstring Friction

The E*C TRAK Torque and Drag Module

General Uses

Inputs Required

Outputs

Typical Drillstring - Wellbore Friction Factors

Use Of Torque & Drag Programs For BHA Weight Evaluation

Self-Check Exercises

Chapter 5

Directional Drilling

Applications Of Directional Drilling

Definition of Directional Drilling

Applications

Multiple wells from offshore structures

Relief Wells

Controlling Vertical Wells

Sidetracking

Inaccessible locations

Fault Drilling

Salt Dome Drilling

Shoreline Drilling

Well Planning

Introduction

Reference Systems and Coordinates

Depth References

Inclination References

Azimuth Reference Systems

Field Coordinates

Direction Measurements

Planning The Well Trajectory

The Target

Types of Directional Patterns

Catenary Curve Well Plan

Horizontal wells

Allocation of slots to targets

Kick-off Point and Build-Up Rate

Tangent Section

Drop-off section

The horizontal projection

Lead angle

Nudging

Techniques for “nudging”

Planning a nudge program

Proximity (anti-collision) analysis

Downhole Motors

Positive Displacement Motors

By-Pass Valve

Motor Section

Connecting rod assemblies

Bearing Section

Types of Positive Displacement Motors

PDM Observations

Characteristics

Navi-Drill Mach 1C

Navi-Drill Mach 2

Navi-Drill Mach 1 P/HF

Navi-Drill Mach 1/AD

Motor Orientation/Control

Turbines

Drive Section

Bearing Section

Directional Turbine

Turbine Observations

Turbine Characteristics

Deflection tools and techniques

Whipstocks

Standard removable Whipstock

Circulating Whipstock

Permanent Casing Whipstock

Jetting

Requirements for jetting

Jetting Assemblies

Nozzling the Jetting Bit

Procedure for Jetting

Advantages of Jetting

Disadvantages of Jetting

Downhole motor and bent sub

Reactive torque

Running Procedures

PDMs vs Turbines with a Bent Sub

Downhole Motor and Bent Sub Combination

PDM with Kick-Off Subs

Toolface Orientation

Directional Control with Rotary Assemblies

Side Force and Tilt Angle

Factors Affecting Bit Trajectory

Basic Directional Control Principles

The Fulcrum Principle

The Stabilization (Packed Hole) Principle

The Pendulum Principle

Summary and Recommended Practices

Bit Type Effects on Rotary Assemblies

Roller Cone Bits

PDC Bits

Stiffness of drill collars

Effects of Drill Collar O.D

Formation Effects on Bit Trajectory

Relationship Between Dip Angle and Deviation Force

Effective Dip Angle in a Deviated Hole

Formation Hardness

Summary of Formation Effects

Navigation Drilling Systems

Advantages of NDS

Steerable Turbines

The DTU Navigation Drilling System

Modes of Operation

DTU Basic Components

Theoretical geometric dogleg severity

Adjustable Kick-Off (AKO) Motor

Adjustable Kick Off Housing

Dogleg Capabilities

Tilt Angle

First String Stabilizer

Kicking-Off

Bottomhole Assemblies

Recommended Guidelines When Kicking Off

Interval drilling

Tangent Section Drilling

Drop Sections

Azimuth Control

Self-Check Exercises

Chapter 6

Horizontal Wells

Self-Check Exercises

Chapter 7

Stuck Pipe

Stuck Pipe Problems

Introduction

Recognizing Problem Situations

Mechanics of Differential Sticking

Determining the Variables in the Stuck Pipe Equation

Preventing Stuck Pipe

Self-Check Exercises

Chapter 8

Well Control

Introduction

Kicks

Causes of Kicks

Recognition of Kicks

Sequence of Events

During Connections

While Tripping

Kick Tolerance

Kick Control

The Time Factor

Surface Pressures

Downhole Stresses

Procedural Complexity

Kick Control Methods

The Driller's Method

The Engineer's Method

The Concurrent Method

Pressure Control Theory

Shut-in Procedures

Well Control Equipment

Special Kick Problems And Procedures

Excessive Casing Pressure

Kick Occurs While Running Casing or Liner

Parted or Washed-Out Drillstring

Stuck Pipe

Plugged or Packed-Off Bit

Underground Blowout

Lost Circulation

Weighted Plugs

Bullheading

Kick and Kill Analysis

Self-Check Exercises

Chapter 9

Cost Analysis

Introduction

Cost-Per-Foot Analysis

Cost Per Foot Calculations Including Downhole Motors

Target Cost Per Foot and Target ROP

Calculation of Target ROP

Breakeven Cost Analysis

Drilling Optimization

Drill-Off Tests

Surface Indicators

Torque

Pump Pressure

Pump Strokes

Pulling the Drill Bit

Summary

Self-Check Exercises

Chapter 10

Technical Writing

Technical Writing Techniques

Checklist For Technical Writing

Grammar Review

Final Well Report

Information Collection

Self-Check Exercises

Appendix A

End Of Manual Return Exercises

Appendix B

Answers to Self-Help Exercises

Chapter 1 - Drilling Fluids And Fluid Hydraulics

Chapter 2 - Casing and Cementing

Chapter 3 - Bit Technology

Chapter 4 - Drillstring Basics

Chapter 5- Directional Drilling

Chapter 6 - Horizontal Wells

Chapter 7 - Stuck Pipe

Chapter 8 - Well Control

Chapter 9 - Cost Analysis

Chapter 10 - Technical Writing

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