Литература по нефтяной
и газовой промышленности

Heriot Watt: DrillingEngineering

Авторы: Heriot Watt

Название: drilling engineering

Формат: PDF

Размер: 14,4 Mb


Contents

Chapter 1 - Overview of drilling operations
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Exploration and Production Licences
1.2 Exploration, Development and Abandonment
2. DRILLING PERSONNEL
3. THE DRILLING PROPOSAL AND DRILLING PROGRAM
4. ROTARY DRILLING EQUIPMENT
5. THE DRILLING PROCESS
6. OLLSHORE DRILLING
7. DRILLING ECONOMICS
7.1 Drilling Costs in Field Development
7.2 Drilling Cost Estimates
 
Chapter 2 - Rig components
1. INTRODUCTION
2. POWER SYSTEM
3. CIRCULATING SYSTEM
Round Trip Operations Drilling Ahead Running Casing Short Trips
4. CIRCULATING SYSTEM
Duplex Pumps Triplex Pumps
5. ROTARY SYSTEM
5.1 Procedure for Adding Drillpipe when Drilling Ahead
5.2 Procedure for Pulling the Drillstring from the Hole
5.3 Iron Roughneck
5.4 Top Drive Systems
6. WELL CONTROL SYSTEM
6.1 Detecting a kick
6.2 Closing in the Well
6.3 Circulating out a kick
7. WELL MONITORING SYSTEM
 
Chapter 3 - The drill string
1. INTRODUCTION
2. DRILLPIPE
2.1 Drillpipe Stress and Failure
2.2 Drillpipe Inspection
3. TOOL JOINTS
4. HEAVY WALL DRILLPIPE (HWDP)
5. DRILL COLLARS
5.1 Special Types of Collar
6. OTHER DRILLSTRING COMPONENTS
6.1. Stabilisers
6.2 Roller Reamer
6.3 Shock sub (vibration dampener)
6.4. Subs (substitutes)
6.5. Drilling Jars
7. DRILL STRING DESIGN
7.1. Design of a Stabilised String
7.2 Bending Moments in String Design
7.3 Length of Drillcollars
7.4 Drill Pipe Selection
7.4 Design Procedure
 
Chapter 4 - Drilling bits
1. TYPES OF DRILLING BIT
1.1. Drag Bits
1.2 Roller Cone Bits
1.3 Diamond Bits
1.3.1 Natural Diamond Bits
1.3.2 PDC Bits
1.3.3 TSP Bits
2. BIT DESIGN
2.1 Roller Cone Bit Design
2.1.1. Bearing Assembly
2.1.2. Cone Design
2.1.3 Cutting Structure
2.1.4 Fluid Circulation
2.2 PDC Bit Design
2.2.1 Cutter Material
2.2.2 Bit Body Material
2.2.2 Bit Body Material
2.2.4 Profile
2.2.5 Cutter Density
2.2.6 Cutter Exposure
2.2.7 Fluid Circulation
3. BIT SELECTION
3.1 Roller Cone Bits
3.2 Fixed Cutter Bits
4. ROCK BIT EVALUATION
5. BIT PERFORMANCE
5.1 Roller Cone Bits
5.1.1 Weight on Bit
5.1.2. Rotary Speed
5.1.3. Mud Properties
5.2 PDC Bits
5.2.1 WOB/RPM
5.2.2 Mud Properties
5.2.3 Hydraulic Efficiency
 
Chapter 5 - Formation pressures
1. INTRODUCTION
2. FORMATION PRESSURES
3. OVERBURDEN PRESSURES
4. ORIGIN OF ABNORMAL PRESSURES
4.1 Origin of Subnormal Formation Pressures
4.2 Origin of Overpressured Formations
5. DRILLING PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ABNORMAL FORMATION PRESSURES
6. TRANSITION ZONE
7. PREDICTION AND DETECTION OF ABNORMAL PRESSURES
7.1 Predictive Techniques
7.2 Detection Techniques
7.2.1 Detection Based on Drilling Parameters
7.2.2 Drilling Mud Parameters
7.2.3 Drilled Cuttings
7.3 Confirmation Techniques
8. FORMATION FRACTURE GRADIENT
8.1 Mechanism of Formation Breakdown
8.2 The Leak-Off Test, Limit Test and Formation Breakdown Test
8.2.1 Leak Off Test Calculations
8.2.2 The Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) of a fluid
8.2.3 MAASP
8.3 Calculating the Fracture Pressure of a Formation
8.4 Summary of Procedures
 
Chapter 6 - Well control
1. INTRODUCTION
2. PRIMARY CONTROL
2.1 Reduction in Mudweight
2.2 Reduced Height of Mud Colorn
3. WARNING SIGNS OF KICKS
3.1 Primary Indicators of a Kick
3.2 Secondary Indicators
3.3 Precautions Whilst Drilling
3.4 Precautions During Tripping
4. SECONDARY CONTROL
4.1 Shut in Procedure
4.2 Interpretation of Shut-in Pressures
4.3 Formation Pore Pressure
4.4 Kill Mud Weight
4.5 Determination of the Type of Influx
4.6 Factors Affecting the Annulus Pressure, Palm 4.8 MAASP
5. WELL KILLING PROCEDURES
5.1 Drillstring out of the Well
5.2 Drillstring in the Well
5.3 One Circulation Well Killing Method
5.4 Drillers Method for Killing a Well
6. BOP EQUIPMENT
6.1 Annular Preventers
6.2 Ram Type Preventers
6.3 Drilling Spools
6.4 Casing Spools
6.5 Diverter System
6.6 Choke and Kill Lines
6.7 Choke Manifold
6.8 Choke Device
6.9 Hydraulic Power Package (Accumulators)
6.10 Internal Blow-out Preventers
7. BOP STACK ARRANGEMENTS
7.1 General considerations
7.2 API Recommended Configurations
7.2.1 Low Pressure (2000 psi WP)
7.2.2 Normal Pressure (3000 or 5000 psi WP)
7.2.3 Abnormally High Pressure (10000 or 15000 psi WP)
 
Chapter 7 - Casing
1. INTRODUCTION
2. COMPONENT PARTS OF A CASING STRING
3. CASING TERMINOLOGY
3.1 Conductor Casing (30” O.D.)
3.2 Surface Casing (20” O.D.)
3.3 Intermediate Casing (13 3/8” O.D.)
3.4 Production Casing (9 5/8” O.D.)
3.5 Liner (7” O.D.)
4. PROPERTIES OF CASING
4.1 Casing Size (Outside Diameter - O.D.)
4.2 Length of Joint
4.3 Casing Weight
4.4 Casing Grade
4.5 Connection
5. API SPECIFICATIONS, STANDARDS AND BUL LETINS
6. WELLHEADS AND CASING HANGERS
6.1 Spool Type Wellhead
6.2 Compact Spool (Speedhead)
6.3 Casing Hangers
7. RIG-SITE OPERATIONS
7.1 Handling Procedures
7.2 Casing Running Procedures
7.3 Casing Landing Procedures
7.4 Liner Running Procedures
8. CASING DESIGN
8.1 Introduction to the Casing Design Process
8.1.1 Design Casing Scheme Configuration -Selecting Casing sizes and Setting Depths
8.1.2 Define the Operational Scenarios and Consequent Loads on the Casing
8.1.3 Calculate the Loads on the Casing and Select the Appropriate Weight and Grade of Casing
8.2 Casing Design Rules Base
8.3 Other design considerations
8.4 Summary of Design Process
 
Chapter 8 - Cementing
1. OILWELL CEMENTS
1.1 Functions of oilwell cement
1.2 Classification of cement powders
1.3 Mixwater Requirements
2. PROPERTIES OF CEMENT
3. CEMENT ADDITIVES
4. PRIMARY CEMENTING
4.1 Downhole cementing equipment
4.2 Surface cementing equipment
4.3 Single Stage Cementing Operation
4.4 Multi - Stage cementing Operation
4.5 Inner string cementing
4.6 Liner cementing
4.7 Recommendations for a good cement job
5. SQUEEZE CEMENTING
5.1 High Pressure Squeeze
5.2 Low pressure squeeze
5.3 Equipment used for squeeze cementing
5.4 Testing the squeeze job
6. CEMENT PLUGS
7. EVALUATION OF CEMENT JOBS
 
Chapter 9 - Drilling fluids
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Functions of a Drilling Fluid
1.2 Types of Drilling Fluid
1.3 Historical Development of Drilling Fluids
1.4 Composition of Mud
2. FIELD TESTS ON DRILLING FLUIDS
2.1 Mud density
2.2 Viscosity
2.3 Gel Strength
2.4 Filtration
2.5 Sand Content
2.6 Liquid and Solid Content
2.7 pH Determination
2.8 Alkalinity
2.9 Chloride content
2.10 Activity(aw)
2.11 Cation Exchange Capacity
3. WATER BASED MUD
3.1 Clay Chemistry
3.2 Additives to WBM’s
3.3 Special Types of Water Based Muds
3.3.1 Inhibited Muds
3.3.2 Brine Drilling Fluid
4. OIL-BASED MUDS
4.1 Water in oil emulsions
4.2 Wettability control
4.3 Balanced activity
4.4 Viscosity control
4.5 Filtration control
5. SOLIDS CONTROL
5.1 Solids Control Equipment
5.2 Solids Control Systems
 
Chapter 10 -Hydraylics
1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
2. FLOW REGIME AND REYNOLDS NUMBER
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Determination oftheLaminar/Turbulent Boundary in a Newtonian Fluid:
3. RHEOLOGICAL MODELS
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Newtonian Model:
3.3 Non-Newtonian Models
3.3.1 Introduction
3.3.2 Bingham Plastic Model
3.3.3 Power Law Model
4. FRICTIONAL PRESSURE DROP IN PIPES AND ANNULI
4.1 Laminar Flow' in Pipes and Annuli
4.1.1 Newtonian Fluids
4.1.2 Bingham Plastic Fluids
4.1.3 Power Law Fluid
4.2 Turbulent Flow
4.2.1 Determination of Laminar/Turbulent Boundary in a Non Newtonian Fluids
4.2.2 Turbulent Flow of Newtonian Fluids in Pipes
4.2.3 Extension of Pipe Flow Equations to Annular Geometry
4.2.4 Turbulent Flow of Bingham Plastic Fluids in Pipes and Annuli
4.2.5 Turbulent Flow of Power Law Fluids in Pipes and Annuli
5. FRICTIONAL PRESSURE DROP ACROSS THE BIT
6. OPTIMISING THE HYDRAULICS OF THE CIRCULATING SYSTEM
6.1 Designing for Optimum Hydraulics
6.2 Pressure Losses in the Circulating System
6.3 Graphical Method for Optimization of Hydraulics Programme
 
Chapter 11 - Directional drilling
1. INTRODUCTION
2. APPLICATIONS
3. DEPTH REFERENCE AND GEOGRAPHICAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS
3.1 Depth Reference Systems
3.2 Geographical Reference Systems
4. PLANNING THE PROFILE OF THE WELL
4.1 Parameters Defining the Wellpath
4.2 Defining the Points on the Wellpath
4.2.1 Scaled Diagrams
4.2.2 Geometrical Calculation Technique
5. CONSIDERATIONS WHEN PLANNING THE DIRECTIONAL WELL PATH
6. DEFLECTION TOOLS
6.1 Bent Sub and Mud Motor
6.2 Steerable Drilling Systems
6.2.1 Components
6.2.2 Dogleg Produced by a Steerable System
6.2.3 Operation of a Steerable System
6.3 Rotary Steering System
6.3.1 Downhole System
6.3.2 Surface System
6.4 Directional Bottom Hole Assemblies (BHA)
6.4.1 Packed Hole Assembly
6.4.2 Pendulum Assembly
6.4.3 Fulcrum Assembly
6.5 Whipstocks
APPENDIX - I : Positive Displacement Motors (PDM’s) and Turbodrills
Solutions to Exercises
 
Chapter 12 - Directional Surveying
1. INTRODUCTION
2. SURVEYING CALCULATIONS
2.1 Principles of Surveying
2.2 Wellbore Surveying
2.3 Position of the Reference Point
2.4 Measured Depth of Survey
2.5 Azimuthal Direction of Wellbore
2.6 Inclination of the wellbore
2.7 Mathematical Models of the Wellbore Trajectory:
2.7.1 Tangential Model
2.7.2 Balanced Tangential Model
2.7.3 Average Angle Model
2.7.4 Radius of Curvature Model
2.7.5 Minimum Curvature Model
3. SURVEY CALCULATIONS AND PLOTTING RESULTS
4. PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEYING TOOLS
4.1 Magnetic Single Shot
4.2 Magnetic Multi-shot
4.3 Gyro Single Shot
4.4 GyroMulti-Shot
4.5 Accuracy of Photographic Survey Results
5. DOWNHOLE TELEMETRY TOOLS
6. INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
7. STEERING TOOLS
 
Chapter 13 - Measurment while drilling
1. INTRODUCTION
2. MWD SYSTEMS
2.1 Power Sources
3. MWD - DIRECTIONAL TOOLS
3.1 Calculations for Inclination, Toolface and Azi mutfa
3.2 Normal Surveying Routine 3.3. Accuracy of MWD Surveys
4. MWD - GAMMA RAY TOOLS
5. TRANSMISSION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS
6. SURFACE SYSTEM
7. EXAMPLE SYSTEMS
 
Chapter 14 - Subsea drilling
1. DRILLING THE WELL
1.1 Positioning the Rig
1.2 Running the Temporary guide base (TGB)
1.3 Drilling the 36” Hole
1.4 Running and Cementing the 30" Casing
1.5 Installation of the Diverter
1.6 Drilling the 26" Hole
1.7 Running and Cementing the 18 5/8"Casing
1.8 Installing the BOP
1.9 Drilling the 17 1/2" Hole
1.10 Running and Cementing the 13 3/8" Casing
1.11 Drilling the 12 1/4" Hole
1.12 Preparing the well for completion
2. COMPLETING THE WELL
2.1 Installing the tubing string and tubing hanger
2.2 Removal of the BOP STAck and Installation of the Xmas Tree.
2.3 Cleaning up the well

3 SUSPENDING THE WELL 4. ABANDONMENT

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