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IADC: Drilling Manual

Авторы: IADC

Название: Drilling Manual

Формат: PDF

Размер: 21,3 Mb

Год издания: 2000

 

Contents
 
Chapter A - Bit Classification and Grading
A-1 First Revision To The IADC Fixed Cutter Dull Grading System
Contributors
Summary
Abstract
Introduction
System Enhancements
Application Of Dull Grading System
Conclusion
References
Acknowledgements
A2 - IADC Fixed Cutter Classification System
Development Of A New IADC Fixed Cutter Drill Bit Classification System
Contributors
Abstract
Introduction
Background
Proposed System
Conclusions
References
Acknowledgements
A3 - The IADC Roller Bit Classification System
Summary
Series And Type
Characters 1 And 2
Cutting Action
Tooth Count And Geometry
Insert Shape Comparison
Cone Design And Orientation
Cutting Structure Metallurgy
Bearing/Gage Design Configuration (Character 3)
Features Available (Optional 4th Character)
A4 - IADC Roller Bit Dull Bit Grading System
Description of the IADC Roller Bit Dull Bit Grading System
A4. IADC Roller Bit Dull Grading System
Discussion Of Dulling Characteristics
BC (Broken Cone) or BF (Bond Failure) - (Fig. A4-3)
BT (Broken Teeth) - (Fig. A4-4)
BU (Balled Up) - (Fig. A4-5)
CC (Crocked Cone) - (Fig. A4-6)
CD (Cone Dragged) - (Fig. A4-7)
CI (Cone Interference) - (Fig. A4- 8)
CR (Cored) - (Fig. A4-9)
CT (Chipped Teeth) - (Fig. A4-10)
ER (Erosion) - (Fig. A4-11)
FC (Flat Crested Wear) - (Fig. A4-12)
HC (Heat Checking) - (Fig. A4-13)
JD (Junk Damage) - (Fig. A4-14)
LC (Lost Cone) - (Fig. A4-15)
LN (Lost Nozzle) - (Fig. A4-16)
LT (Lost Teeth) - (Fig. A4-17)
OC (Off Center Wear) - (Fig. A4-18)
PB (Pinched Bit) - (Fig. A4-19)
PN (Plugged Nozzle) - (Fig. A4-20)
RG (Rounded Gage) - (Fig. A4-21)
SD (Shirttail Damage) - (Fig. A4-22)
SS (Self Sharpening Wear) - (Fig. A4-23)
TR (Tracking) - (Fig. A4-24)
WO (Washed Out Bit) - (Fig. A4-25)
WT (Worn Teeth) (Fig. A4-26)
NO (No Dull Characteristics)
Chapter B - Drill String
Preface
B1. Drill String
Introduction
I. Weld-on Tool Joints
B2. Steel Drill Pipe
B3. Tool Joints Care And Handling
I. Cleaning and Inspectio
II. Picking Up the Drill String
III. Thread Compounds
IV. Breaking In New Tool Joints
V. Tripping
VI. Laying Down Drill String
VII. Damage and Failures -- Cause Prevention
VIII. Repair of Tool Joints
IX. Emergency Procedures
X. Transportation
XI. Storage
XII. Floor Handling Procedures
B4. Drill String Operating Limits
I. Fatigue and Lateral Forces caused by Dog Legs and Floating Vessels
II. Fatigue Caused by Other Factors
III. Critical Rotary Speed
IV. Collapsed Pipe -- From Drill Stem Test and BOP Test
V. Transition from Drill String to Drill Collars
VI. Maximum Allowable Pull and Rotary Torque
VII. Make up Torque versus Drilling Torque
IX. Dynamic Loading of Drill Pipe during Tripping
X. Biaxial Loading of Drill Pipe
XI. Drill String Design
XII. References
B5. Drill String Corrosion
I. Introduction
Il. Corrosion
III. Sulfide Stress Cracking
IV. Drilling Fluids Containing Oil
B6. Drill String Inspection And Classification
I. Purpose
II. Drill String Marking and Identification
III. Drill Pipe And Tubing Work Strings
IV. Tool Joints
B7. Aluminum Drill String
Introduction
II. Installation and Removal of Tool Joints
III. Aluminum Drill Pipe
IV. Drill String Care and Handling
V. Drill String Maintenance
VI. Drill String Operating Limits
B-8 Glossary Of Drill String Terms
Chapter C - Casing and Tubing
I. Care And Use Of Casing
Introduction
I. Transportation
II. Preparation And Inspection Before Running
III. Rig Equipmen
IV. Pre-running Preparations
V. Running Casing
VI. Causes Of Casing Troubles
VII. Recovery Of Casing
VIII. Reconditioning
IX. Field Welding Of Attachments On Casing
II. Care And Use Of Tubing
Introduction
I. Transportation
II. Preparation And Inspection Before Running
III. Rig Equipment
IV. Pre-running Preparations
V. Running
VI. Pulling Tubing
VII. Causes Of Tubing Troubles
VIII Reconditioning
Chapter D - Drill Collars, Kellys, Subs and Heavy Weight Drill Pipe
Preface
D1. Drill Collars: Specifications & Usage
I. Specifications
D2. Drill Collars: Care And Maintenance
I. Recommended Drill Collar Care And Maintenance
D3. Kellys: Specifications
I. Specifications
D4. Kellys: Care And Maintenance
I. Care And Maintenance
D5. Drill Stem Subs: Specifications
I. Class And Type
II. Dimensions For Type A & B Subs
III. Dimensions For Type C (Swivel) Subs
IV. Mechanical Properties Of Drill Stem Subs
V. Kelly Saver Subs
D6. Kelly Valves: Specifications
I. Upper Kelly Cocks
II. Lower Kelly Cocks
III. Automatic Mud Saver Valves
IV. Kelly Saver Subs
D-7 Specifications Of Heavy Weight Drill Pipe
Care and Maintenance of HWDP
D8 - Glossary of Drill String Terms
Chapter E - Pipe Handling Equiptment
E1. Pipe Handling Equipment
Introduction
I. Specifications
E2. Bushings And Slips
I. Specifications
II. Care And Maintenance
E3. Elevators
I. Drill Pipe Elevators
II. Drill Collar Elevators
E4 - Drill Collar Slips and Safety Clamps
I. Drill Collar Slips
II. Drill Collar Safety Clamps
E5. Elevator Links, Block, Hook And Swivel Specifications
Chapter F - Drawworks Brakes
Introduction
I. Maintenance Procedures
II. Brake Linings (Blocks)
III. Brake Bands
IV. Brake Rims (Flanges)
V. Brake Linkage
VI. Company Policy
Chapter G - Chains and Sprockets
G1. Construction and Specifications
I. Roller Chain Construction And Types
II. Sprockets
G2. Installation, Lubrication And Maintenance
I. Installation
II. Lubrication
III Maintenance
Roller Chain Drive Troubleshooting Guide
Chapter H - Rotary Hose and Swivels
H1. Rotary Hose Specifications
I. Introduction
II. Specifications
H2. Rotary Hose Care And Maintenance
I. Recommended Dimensions
II. Care And Maintenance
H3. Swivels Specifications
I. Swivel Pressure Testing
II. Swivel Gooseneck Connection
III. Swivel Subs
H4. Inspection
I. Inspection
Chapter I - Engines
I. Engines - Care And Maintenance
I. Installation
II. Maintenance
III. Operating Troubles And Their Causes - Diesel Engines
IV. Intake Vacuum vs Load
Chapter J - Pumps
J-1 Introduction - Pumps
J-2 Surface and Mud System
I. Suction Mud System
II. Discharge System
III. Drilling Fluids And Their Effect On Expendable Pump Parts
J-3 Pump Parts, Theory and Function
I. Pistons
II. Duplex Piston Rods
III. Rod Lubricants
IV. Liner Packing
J-4 Removal and Installation of Fluid Ends
I. General - Removal and Installation of Fluid Ends
II. Duplex Pump -- Disassembly
III. Duplex Pump-assembly
IV. Duplex Pump -- Piston Assembly
V. Single Acting Pump -- Disassembly
VI. Single Acting Pump -- Assembly
VII. Single Acting Piston Assembly
IX. Valve and Seat
J-5 Pump Problems, Failures and Analysis
I. Priming and Starting Instructions
II. Pistons and Liners
III. Fluid End Piston Rod and Packing
IV. Valves and Seats
V. Reducing Pump Volume
VI. Centrifugal Pump Care and Maintenance
VII. Checklists
J6. Power End Maintenance
I. Pump Storage
J7. Preventive Maintenance
I. Planned Preventative Maintenance
II. Establishing a Preventative Maintenance Program
III. Advantages of programming:
Chapter K - Well Control Equipment and Procedures
Disclaimer and Credits
K-1 Blowout Preventer Stack Equipment
I. Annular Type Blowout Preventer
II. Ram Type Blowout Preventer
III. Typical Bop Stack Arrangement And Testing Procedures For A Surface Stack
IV. Inside Blowout Preventers
V. Choke Manifold
VI. Diverter Systems
K2. Blowout Preventer Control Systems
A. Surface Bop Stacks, (Land Rigs, Offshore Jackups, And Platforms)
B. Subsea Bop Stacks
C. Remote Operated Choke Controls
D. Diverter Control Systems
E. Control Systems Typical Capacity And Performance Data / Calculations
K3. Well Control Procedures
Basic Principles
II. Pre-kill Procedures
III. Formation Pressure Integrity Information
IV. Kill Techniques
K-4 Glossary of Well Control Terms
Chapter L - Derricks and Masts
L-1 Ratings of L Derricks and Masts
Ratings
L-2 Inspection Report of Derricks and Masts
Derricks And Masts
A. Derricks And Masts
B. Substructure And Vertical Extension
C. Deadline Anchor And Supports
Chapter M - Wire Rope
M1. Wire Rope: Specifications
I. Introduction
II. Definition
III. Wire Rope Nomenclature
IV. Wire - Rope Sizes And Constructions
M2. Care And Handling Of Wire Rope
I. Field Care And Use Of Wire Rope
II. Socketing Of Wire Rope
III Attachment Of Wire Rope Claps To Wire Rope
IV. Casing-line And Drilling Line Reeving Practice
M3. Factors Affecting Service Life Of Wire Rope
M4. Ton Mile Calculations
A. Introduction
B. Examples Of Ton-mile Calculations
C. Ton-miles Per Foot Cut
D. Ton Mile Calculations - Drilling Ton Miles for Top Drive (Drilling with Stands)
M5. Cut-off Program
C. Union Wire Rope Cut-Off Program For Rotary Drilling Line
M-6 Drum And Reel Capacity
A. Design Factor
B. Design Factor Charts
M-7 Wire Rope - Ton Mile Calculations - Special Applications
M-8 Appendix - Ton Mile Formulas
1. Round-Trip Operations:
2. Drilling Operations:
3. Coring Operations:
4. Setting Casing Operations:
5. Short Trip Operations:
Chapter N - Lubrication
N1. Lubrication
I. Conditions
IIA. Glossary
IIB: Definitions -- General
IIC. Definitions -- Lubricant Additives
N2. Types Of Lubrication
I. Engine Crankcase Oil
C. Government and Industry Specifications
II. Industrial Gear Oils
III. Hydraulic Oils
IV. Grease
V. Tool Joint Lubricants
VI. Rust Preventives
N3. Lubrication Practices
I. Introduction
II. General Hints On Lubrication
III. Cooling System
IV. Record Keeping
V. Storage And Handling Of Lubricants
N4. Cold Weather Conditions
1. Introduction
II. Rig Enclosures
III. Engines And Power Plants
IV. Chain Drives, Compounds, Gear Reducers, Slush Pumps & Rotary Tables
V. Grease Applications
VI. Thread Lubricants
VII. Blow-out Preventers
VIII. Machinery Storage
IX. Lubricant Storage
X. Summary
XI. Fuel
Chapter O - Drilling Fluids
1. Drilling Fluids: Functions And Tests
I. General
II. Functions
III. Test and Mud Properties
IV. Factors Affecting Mud Performance and Cost
2. Types Of Drilling Fluids
I. Water Based Drilling Fluids
II. Oil Muds
3. Trouble Shooting
I. Problems
II. Specific Problems
4. Calculations
I. Calculations
II. Additional Aids
5. Additives For Drilling Fluids
I. Definitions for Drilling Fluid Classification
II. Drilling Fluid Systems
III. Fluid Additive Functions
Chapter P - Hole Deviation and Horizontal Drilling
References
P-1 Straight Hole Drilling
I. Introduction
II. Problems Associated With Dog-legs And Key Seats
III. Control Of Hole Angle?
IV. Factors To Consider When Designing Packed Hole Assembly
V. Packed Hole Assemblies
VI. Stabilizing Tools
VII. Conclusion
P-2 Controlled Directional Drilling
I. Introduction
II. Basic Deflection Patterns
III. Planning And Supervising The Directional Well
IV. Sub Surface Surveying
V. Deflection Tools
VI. Orientation Of Deflection Tools
VII. Principles Of Directional Drilling Stabilization
VIII. Dog-leg Severities
P-3 Horizontal Drilling
A. Planning
B. Proper Drill Stem Design
C. Factors Determining Optimum Well Profiles
D. Four Factors That Affect Fatigue Damage
E. Directional Control In The Horizontal Section
Chapter R - Hydraulics
Preface
R-1 Introduction to the Bit Hydraulics Problem
Determine Maximum Operating Pressure and Volumetric Discharge
Tables R-1 Mud Circulation Equipment - Pump Data
R-2A Circulation Rates for Duplex Pumps
R-2B Circulation Rates For Triplex Pumps
R-3A Annular Velocity Around Drill Pipe
R-3B Annular Velocity Around Drill Collars
R-4 Surface Equiptment Descriptions
R-5 Surface Equiptment Pressure Losses
R-6 Drill Pipe Bore Pressure Losses
R-7 Drill Pipe Annular Pressure Losses
R-8 Drill Collar Pressure Losses
R-9 Drill Collar Annular Pressure Losses
R-10 Selection Of Jet Nozzle Size
R-11 Calculation Of Jet Velocity
R-12 Discharge Area Of Jet Nozzles
R-13-1. Equations Used in Hydraulic Calculations
A. Bit Selection Equations
D. Drilling Fluid Property Equations
R-13-8 Nomenclature for Equations - Smith Int.
R-13-9 Nomenclature and Terminology
R-13-10. Pipe Flow Equations
R-13-11. Annular Flow Equations
R-13-12. Bit Hydraulic Calculations
R-13-13. Chip Rate Calculations
R-13-14. Completed Work Sheet
R-13-15. Blank Work Sheet
Chapter T - Cementing
T1. Cementing
I. Introduction
II. Types Of Cement Used In Oil Wells
T2. Casing Strings
I. Introduction
II. Plug Back Cementing
III. Squeeze Cementing
IV. Horizontal Well Completions
T3. Balancing A Plug
I. Balancing A Plug
II. Calculating Fillup
III. Pumping Large Diameter Surface-string Up The Hole
T-4. Estimating Cement Required For Various Cementing Jobs
Glossary of Cementing/Casing Terms
Chapter U - Electric Drilling Rigs
U-1. Silicon Controlled Rectifier Systems
1. Introduction
A. DC/DC and SCR Systems
B. DC Drilling Motors
U-2. SCR (AC/DC) Power Systems
A. AC Electrical Power Generation
A3. AC Switchgear
B. AC/DC Conversion
U-3. DC/DC Power Systems
A. Introduction
B. Controls
C. Braking
D. System Protection
E. Driller's Console
U-4. Maintenance
General
Maintenance Section Outline
Daily Maintenance:
Monthly Maintenance:
Repair:
U-5. Technical Index
1. Maintenance Checklists:
2. Reference Handbooks
Chapter V - General Information
Introduction
1. Selected API Publications (Producton)
Introduction
Belting
Derricks And Masts
Tubular Goods
Valves And Wellhead Equipments
Drilling Equipment
Hoisting Tools
Wire Rope
Oil Well Cements
Drilling Fluid Materials
Drilling Well Control Systems
Drilling And Production Recommended Practices
Special Publications
2. Hole and Pipe Data
Capacity
Displacement of Hole and Pipe
Volume and Height between Pipe and Casing:
Volume and Height between Pipe and Hole:
3. Field Gas Lines
Pipeline Flow Of Gas Formulae And Conversions
Gas Delivery, Based on 1000 Ft pipeline lengths
Gas Delivery, Based on 1 Mile pipeline lengths
Gas Delivery, Based on 10 Mile pipeline lengths
4. Waterlines - Line Pipe Capacities
5. Tank and Pit Capacity
6. Conversion Factors
7. Density of Oilfield Materials and Wood
8. Density of Fluids and Petroleum Products
9. Soil Bearing Capacity
Chapter Y - Drilling Mud Processing
1. Introduction - Solids Control Removal Systems
A. Overview
B. Solids Removal Theory
C. Equipment Arrangement
II. Solids Control Equipment
A. Shale Shakers
B. Degassers
C. Hydrocyclones
D. Mud Cleaners

E. Centrifuges
III. Surface Circulating Equipment
A. Introduction
B. Considerations and Methods for Sizing Surface Mud Systems
C. Special Considerations
D. Sizing Steel Pits
E. Earthen Pits
F. Reserve and/or Waste Pits
4. System Rig-up Information
A. Solids Control System Layout Considerations
B. Centrifugal Pump Selection and Piping Design

C. Mud Troughs After the Shale Shakers

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