Литература по нефтяной
и газовой промышленности

K. Arnold, M. Stewart. Surface production operations

Авторы:K. Arnold, M. Stewart

Название: Surface production operations

Формат: PDF

Размер: 38,2 Mb

Год издания: 1999г.

Contents Volume1
Acknowledgments
Preface
 
CHAPTER 1
 
The Production Facility
Introduction
Making the Equipment Work
Facility Types
 
CHAPTER 2
 
Choosing a Process
Introduction
Controlling the Process
Operation of a Control Valve , Pressure Control ,
Level Control , Temperature Control 30, Flow Control
Basic System Configuration,
Wellhead and Manifold, Separation, Oil Treating,
Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT), Pumps,
Water Treating, Compressors, Gas Dehydrators
Well Testing
Gas Lift
Offshore Platform Considerations
Overview, Modular Construction
Equipment Arrangement
 
CHAPTER 3
 
Fluid Properties
Introduction
Basic Principles
Specific Gravity and Density, Viscosity
Flash Calculations
Characterizing the Flow Stream,
Molecular Weight of Gas, Gas Flow Rate,
Liquid Molecular Weight, Specific Gravity of
Liquid, Liquid Flow Rate, The Flow Stream
Approximate Flash Calculations
Other Properties
 
CHAPTER 4
 
Two-Phase Oil and Gas Separation
 
Introduction
Factors Affecting Separation
Equipment Description,
Horizontal Separators, Vertical Separators,
Spherical Separators, Other Configurations,
Scrubbers
Horizontal vs. Vertical Vessel Selection,
Vessel Internals,
Inlet Diverters, Wave Breakers, Defoaming Plates,
Vortex Breaker, Mist Extractor
Potential Operating Problems
Foamy Crudes, Paraffin, Sand,
Liquid Carryover and Gas Blowby
Theory
Settling, Drop Size, Retention Time, Re-entrainment
Separator Sizing,
Horizontal Separators, Procedure for Sizing Horizontal
Separators, Vertical Separators
Examples
Sizing a Vertical Separator,
Sizing a Horizontal Separator
References
 
CHAPTER 5
 
Oil and Water Separation
 
Introduction
Equipment Description,
Horizontal Separators, Vertical Separators,
Horizontal vs. Vertical Selection
Vessel Internals,
Coalescing Plates, Sand Jets and Drains
Emulsions,
Theory,
Gas Separation, Oil/Water Settling,
Water Droplet Size in Oil, Oil Droplet Size in Water,
Retention Time
Separator Sizing,
Horizontal Separators, Settling Equation,
Vertical Separators
Examples,
Sizing a Vertical Three-Phase Separator,
Sizing a Horizontal Three-Phase Separator
 
CHAPTER 6
 
Crude Oil Treating Systems
Introduction,
Emulsion Treating Theory,
Forming Emulsions, Emulsifying Agent ,
Demulsifiers
Gravity Separation,
Coalescence, Viscosity, Temperature Effects,
Heat Input Equations, Water Droplet Size and Retention
Time, Coalescing Media, Electrostatic Coalescers
Treating Equipment,
Vertical Treaters, Horizontal Treaters,
Electrostatic Treaters
Equipment Sizing and Theory,
Settling Equations, Retention Time Equations,
Water Droplet Size
Design Procedure
Examples,
Sizing a Horizontal Treater, Sizing a Vertical Treater
References
 
CHAPTER 7
 
Produced-Water Treating Systems
 
Introduction
System Description,
Theory,
Gravity Separation, Dispersion, Coalescence, Flotation
Treating Equipment,
Settling Tanks and Skimmer Vessels, Skimmer Sizing Equations, Plate Coalescers,
Skimmer/Coalescers, Precipitators/Coalescing Filters, Free-Flow Turbulent Coalescers (SP Packs), Flotation Units, Hydrocyclones, Disposal Piles, Skim Pile
Drain Systems,
Information Required for Design,
Influent Water Quality,
Produced Water, Soluble Oil, Deck Drainage
Equipment Selection Procedure
Equipment Specification
Example: Design the Produced-Water Treating System for the Data Given
 
CHAPTER 8
 
Pressure Drop in Piping
 
Introduction
Basic Principles
Reynolds Number, Flow Regimes, Bernoulli's Theorem, Darcy's Equation,
Moody Friction Factor
Fluid Flow Equations
Liquid Flow, Gas Flow, Two-Phase Flow
Head Loss in Valves and Pipe Fittings,
Resistance Coefficients, Flow Coefficient,
Equivalent Length, Laminar Flow Coefficient
Example Pressure Drop Calculations
Pressure Drop in Liquid Line, Pressure Drop in Gas Line,
Pressure Drop in Two-Phase Line
 
CHAPTER 9
 
Choosing a Line Size and Wall Thickness
 
Introduction
Line Size Criteria
Erosional Flow, Liquid Lines, Gas Lines,
Two-Phase Flow
Wall Thickness Criteria
Standards and Requirements, General Hoop Stress Formula for Thin Wall Cylinders
Pressure Rating Classes
Industry Standards, API 6A,
Pipe, Valve, and Fitting Specifications
Examples
Liquid Line, Gas Line, Two-Phase Line
References
 
CHAPTER 1O
 
Pumps
 
Introduction
Pump Classification
Centrifugal Pumps
Reciprocating Pumps
Diaphragm Pumps
Rotary Pumps
Multiphase Pumps
Basic Principles
Head, Horsepower,
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
Basic Selection Criteria
 
CHAPTER 11
 
Centrifugal Pumps
 
Introduction
Multiple Pump Installations
Pump Specific Speed
Codes and Standards
Generic Types of Centrifugal Pumps
ANSI Pump, Single-Stage API Pump, Vertical In-Line Pump,
API Multistage Split Case Pump, API Barrel Pumps,
Sump Pump, API Vertical Turbine or Can Pump, Submersible Pump
Bearings, Seals, and Wear Rings
Bearings, Seals, Wear Rings
Installation Considerations
 
CHAPTER 12
 
Reciprocating Pumps
 
Introduction
Controlling Pulsating Flow
Suction and Discharge Piping, Pulsation Dampeners,
Pipe Vibrations
Bearings, Valves, and Packing,
Codes and Standards, Piping Hookup, Operation,
Bypass Valve, Variable-Speed Motors and Drivers
 
CHAPTER 13
 
Organizing the Project
 
Introduction,
Project Steps,
Project Initiation, Conceptual Study,
Project Definition, Design Engineering,
Detailed Engineering, Procurement,
Inspection and Expediting, Startup, Dossier
Project Control and Execution Format,
Project Control,
Engineering Control, Project Cost Control,
Project Timing Control
Project Execution Format,
Turnkey, Negotiated Turnkey,
Modified Turnkey, Cost-Pius,
Comparison of Formats
 
APPENDIX A
 
Sample Project Assignment
 
Index
 
Contents Volume2
 
Acknowledgments
Preface
 
CHAPTER 1
 
Overview of Gas-Handling Facilities
 
CHAPTER 2
 
Heat Transfer Theory
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Conduction, Convection, Radiation, Multiple Transfer
Mechanisms, Overall Temperature Difference, Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient,
Inside Film Coefficient ,Outside Film Coefficient (in a Liquid Bath), Outside Film
Coefficient (Shell-and-Tube Exchangers) , Approximate
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Process Heat Duty
Sensible Heat, Latent Heat, Heat Duty for Multiphase Streams,
Natural Gas Sensible Heat Duty at Constant Pressure,
Oil Sensible Heat Duty, Water Sensible Heat Duty,
Heat Duty and Phase Changes,
Heat Lost to Atmosphere, Heat Transfer from a Fire Tube
 
CHAPTER 3
 
Heat Exchangers
Heat Exchangers
Shell-and-Tube Exchangers
Baffles, Tubes, Tube Pitch, Shells, Options,
Classification, Selection of Types , Placement of
Fluid , TEMA Classes and Tube Materials 60, Sizing 61
Double-Pipe Exchangers
Plate-and-Frame Exchangers
Aerial Coolers
Fired Heater
Heat Recovery Units
Heat Exchanger Example Problem
 
CHAPTER 4
 
Hydrates
Determination of Hydrate Formation Temperature or Pressure
Condensation of Water Vapor
Temperature Drop Due to Gas Expansion
Thermodynamk Inhibitors
Kinetic Inhibitors and Anti-Agglomerators
 
CHAPTER 5
 
LTX Units and Line Heaters
LTX Units
Line Heaters
Heat Duty
Fire-Tube Size
Coil Sizing
Choose Temperatures, Choose Coil Diameter ,
Choose Wall Thickness, Coil Lengths
Standard Size Line Heaters
Line Heater Design Example Problem
 
CHAPTER 6
 
Condensate Stabilization
Partial Pressures
Multistage Separation
Multiple Flashes at Constant Pressure and Increasing Temperature
Cold Feed Distillation Tower
Distillation Tower with Reflux
Condensate Stabilizer Design
Trays and Packing
Trays , Packing, Trays or Packing
Condensate Stabilizer as a Gas Processing Plant
LTX Unit as a Condensate Stabilizer
 
CHAPTER 7
 
Acid Gas Treating
Gas Sweetening Processes
Solid Bed Absorption, Chemical Solvents,
Physical Solvent Processes, Direct Conversion of H2S to Sulfur, Sulfide Scavengers, Distillation ,
Gas Permeation
Process Selection
Design Procedures for Iron-Sponge Units
Design Procedures for Amine Systems
Aniine Absorber, Amine Circulation Rates,
Flash Drum, Amine Reboiler, Amine Stripper,
Overhead Condenser and Reflux Accumulator, Rich/Lean Amine Exchanger
Amine Cooler, Amine Solution Purification
Materials of Construction
Example Problems
 
CHAPTER 8
 
Gas Dehydration
Water Content Determination
Glycol Dehydration
Process Description, Choice of Glycol,
Design Considerations, System Sizing,
Glycol Powered Pumps
Glycol Dehydration Example
Solid Bed Dehydration
Process Description, Design Considerations
Dry Desiccant Design Example
 
CHAPTER 9
 
Gas Processing
Absorption/Lean Oil
Refrigeration
Choice of Process
Fractionation, Design Considerations
 
CHAPTER 1O
 
Compressors
Types of Compressors,
Reciprocating Compressors, Vane-Type Rotary Compressors,
Helical-Lobe (Screw) Rotary Compressors, Centrifugal Compressors
Specifying a Compressor,
Reciprocating Compressors—Process Considerations,
Centrifugal Compressors—Surge Control and Stonewalling,
Centrifugal Compressors Process Considerations
 
CHAPTER 11
 
Reciprocating Compressors
Components
Frame, Cylinder, Special Compressor Cylinder
Construction, Distance Pieces, Crosshead and Rods
and Crankshaft, Piston, Bearings, Packing,
Compressor Valves, Capacity Control Devices
Cylinder Sizing
Piston Displacement, Volumetric Efficiency, Cylinder Throughput Capacity,
Compressor Flexibility
Rod Load
Cooling and Lubrication Systems
Compressor Cylinder Cooling, Frame Lubrication System,
Cylinder/Packing Lubrication System
Pipe Sizing Considerations
Foundation Design Considerations, Industry Standard Specifications,
Fugitive Emissions Control
Example Problem
 
CHAPTER 12
 
Mechanical Design of Pressure Vessels
Design Considerations
Design Temperature, Design Pressure,
Maximum Allowable Stress Values, Determining Wall Thickness, Corrosion Allowance
Inspection Procedures
Estimating Vessel Weights
Specification and Design of Pressure Vessels
Example Problem
 
CHAPTER 13
 
Pressure Relief
Relief Requirements
Type of Devices
Conventional Relief Valves, Balanced-Bellows Relief Valves, Pilot-Operated Relief Valves,
Rupture Discs
Valve Sizing
Critical Flow, Effects of Back-Pressure 368, Flow Rate for Gas, Flow Rate for Liquids,
Two-Phase Flow
Standard Sizes
Installation
Vent Scrubber, Vent or Flare Tip
Relief Header Design
Example Problems
 
CHAPTER 14
 
Safety Systems
Hazard Tree
Developing a Safe Process
Primary Defense
Failure Mode Effect Analysis—FMEA
Modified FMEA Approach
API Recommended Practice 14C
Manual Emergency Shutdown
Annunciation Systems
Function Matrix and Function Charts
Symbols
Hazards Analysis
Types of Hazards Analysis
Problems Commonly Encountered
Safety Management Systems
Safety Case and Individual Risk Rate
 
CHAPTER 15
 
Valves, Fittings, and Piping Details
Valve Types
Ball Valves, Plug Valves, Gate Valves, Butterfly
Valves, Globe Valves, Diaphragm (Bladder)
Valves, Needle Valves, Check Valves,
Valve Selection and Designation
Chokes
Piping Design Considerations
General Piping Design Details
Steel Pipe Materials, Minimum Pipe Wall Thickness,
Pipe End Connections, Branch Connections,
Fiberglass Reinforced Pipe, Insulation
Miscellaneous Piping Design Details
Target Tees, Chokes, Flange Protectors,
Vessel Drains, Open Drains, Piping Vent and Drain Valves, Control Stations
 
CHAPTER 16
 
Prime Movers
Reciprocating Engines
Four-Stroke Cycle Engine, Two-Stroke Cycle Engine,
Comparison of Two-Cycle and Four-Cycle Engines,
Engine Speed , Naturally Aspirated vs. Supercharged Engines, Carburetion and Fuel Injection,
Engine Shutdown System
Gas lurbine Engines
Fundamentals, Effect of Ambient Conditions, Effect of Air Compressor Speed,
Single- vs. Multi-Shaft Turbines, Effect of Air Contaminants
Environmental Considerations
Air Pollution, Noise Pollution
 
CHAPTER 17
 
Electrical Systems
Sources of Power
Utility Power, Electrical Generating Stations
Power System Design
Three-Phase Connections, Power , Power Factor,
Short Circuit Currents
Hazardous Area (Location) Classification
Gas Detection Systems
Grounding
D.C. Power Supply
Categories of Devices
Limitations on Installation of Electrical Devices in Hazardous Areas
Wiring Methods
Division 1 Areas, Division 2 Areas, Wiring System Selection, Junction Boxes and Conduit Fittings,
Sealing Fittings, Receptacles and Attachment Plugs,
Seal Locations, Seal Fittings Installation, Specific Equipment Considerations
Corrosion Considerations
Electrical Standards and Codes
Index
 

Комментарии (5)

  1. Иван:
    01 Mar 2016г. в 21:23

    Thx!

  2. Didar:
    07 Sep 2016г. в 17:00

    I have to improove my knowladge about petroleum engineering

  3. Durdyshka:
    14 Dec 2016г. в 12:13

    Спасибо!!!

  4. Dinis:
    19 Sep 2017г. в 09:01

    Отличная книга!



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